Frequently Asked Questions

Cancer is caused due to uncontrolled growth of tissues or cells that invade into the neighbouring space, affecting the nearby cells and tissues. Cancer can happen at any age and anyone. Cancer can happen in almost any part of the human body. Our body comprises of trillions of cells, which eventually degenerate and are replaced by new cells. During cancer, the cells behave abnormally and stay back when they should be dying and the new cells start forming too, thus piling into tumor- like growth, which when uncontrolled turns cancerous.

Cancerous tumours can affect the entire human body. They probably can spread and attack into adjacent parts of the body. Furthermore, as these tumours develops, some of the cells detach and move to distant places in the body through blood or lymph nodes and start building cancer cells somewhere else. Malignant tumours, even if removed, can grow back again.

Benign tumours, on the other hand, are non-invasive and do not spread into nearby areas. Although they can be large, they do not grow back if removed. Benign brain tumour, however, is dangerous as compared to any other tumour in the body.

Cancer is believed to be hereditary illness and is caused by the changes in the gene that control the way our cells function, especially the way they grow and divide. Cancer can be inherited from parents, but necessarily. It can also be caused due to the changes in the genetic combination due to exposure to carcinogenic substances like tobacco, radiation from the sun and more. It must be mentioned here that Cancer cells have more genetic mutations than normal cells.

The cancer that has travelled from one portion of the human body to another is called metastatic cancer. The course by which the cancer cells move to other parts of the body is called metastasis.

  • Carcinoma: They are the most common type of Cancer formed by the epithelial cells, which cover the inside and the outside of surface of the body. However, Carcinomas that begin in different epithelial cell types have different names. For instance, Adenocarcinoma is a cancer cell that is formed in the epithelial layer that produces fluids or mucous. Cancer of the breast, colon and prostrate are these types of cells.
  • Basel cell carcinoma begins in the outer layer of the skin. Squamous cell carcinoma happens in the epithelial cells just beneath the outer surface of the skin. They mostly effect kidney, stomach, intestines, bladder and lungs. Transitional cell carcinoma is found in the transitional epithelial tissue. These tissues are usually found in the lining of the bladder, uterus and kidneys.
  • Sarcoma cancer: This type of Cancer is formed in the bone and soft tissues, which include, muscles, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, fibrous tissues and more. Osteosarcoma is the cancer of the bone.
  • Leukemia: Cancers that are formed in the bone marrow or blood-forming tissues is called Leukemia. These do not form solid tumours. Instead, a large number of abnormal white cells build up in the blood and bone marrow, piling up on the existing normal blood cells.
  • Lymphoma: These are formed in the lymph nodes of the body that produce disease fighting white blood cells that are an integral part of the immune system.
  • Multiple Myeloma: This begins in plasma cells, which is another type of immune cell. This type of cancer can build tumour in the bones throughout the body. It is also known as plasma cell myeloma and Kahler disease.
  • Melanoma: Cancer of the cell that makes skin pigment- Melanin.

Some of the other types of cancers are brain and spinal cord tumours, germ cell tumours, neuroendocrine tumours, carcinoid tumours, and more.

Women mostly suffer from breast and cervical cancer. Apart from this, there are multiple cases of lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer.

Symptoms of cancer differ in different cases, depending on the type of the Cancer. However, a few generic symptoms are:

  • Blood-stained cough
  • A change in bowel habit
  • Blood in stool
  • Anaemia
  • Breast lump or breast discharge
  • Lumps in testicles
  • Change in urination
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Blood in urine

Childhood cancer is unlikely, but it is also true that cancer is the second main cause of deaths among children after accidents. Nevertheless, look for these symptoms for timely diagnosis and treatment:

  • Weightloss because of no reason
  • Continuous headache
  • Early morning vomiting
  • Pain in bones, joints, backs and legs
  • Lump in abdomen, neck, chest, pelvis and armpits
  • Excessive bruising, bleeding or rash
  • Whitish colour behind pupil
  • Constant infections
  • Changes in the vision
  • Constant tiredness and noticeable paleness
  • Persistent fever